Falcon Joslin: Empire dreams

falconjoslin

Falcon Joslin. Fairbanks Daily
News-Miner archives

By Julie Stricker

This is an excerpt from a paper written for an Alaska History class at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. The full version is in the Alaska and Polar Regions Collections & Archives at the Rasmuson Library.

The north cast a powerful spell on Southern-born Falcon Joslin. A well-regarded lawyer in Seattle, the Klondike Gold Rush lured him to Dawson where Joslin helped supply electricity for the rough-hewn boom town, practiced law and grubstaked miners. His success with a narrow-gauge railroad spurred him to look for bigger opportunities, which he found in the newly established town of Fairbanks.

In the wild Tanana Valley at the turn of the century, Joslin envisioned cities, mines and farms, linked by a railroad that spanned the territory. The railroad was the magnet that would help develop the Alaska frontier, reasoned, "if you lay down railroads the people will come."(1) More important, a railroad would open the territory's vast timber, coal, gold and oil reserves, in essence giving the resources value. Without adequate transportation, Joslin believed, "the value of natural resources on the frontier is like the value of fish in the sea. They have no value until men take and produce them." (2) Providing that access would make Joslin a wealthy man and a successor to railroad barons like J.P. Morgan, whose business savvy the Southern-born lawyer admired.

Joslin never realized his vision. The conservation movement sweeping the United States at the beginning of the 1900s, along with unfavorable federal legislation and Americans' distrust of monopolies conspired against Joslin and his partners. He also lacked power: both the political clout to obtain favorable legislation for Alaska in Congress and, literally, the cheap coal, oil and timber he needed to fuel his projects. Finally, Joslin underestimated the difficulties of business in Alaska. The territory was sparsely populated, subject to severe weather and too remote from Outside markets for viable ventures on the scale that Joslin envisioned. Despite the richness of the natural resources, they could not compete in the marketplace with easily available coal and timber from the contiguous states.

He did build a 45-mile narrow-gauge railroad from the Tanana River to the Fairbanks district's rich mining claims, but he could build no further. The gold boom that fueled Joslin's ambitions petered out and without a steady gold supply, he could not afford to stay in business. By then, Joslin had his hopes set on the next big boom in Iditarod. The little railroad remained isolated in the vast Interior until the government bought it, at half the value Joslin assessed it, and linked it with the Alaska Railroad.

Joslin spent a good deal of his career fighting government policies he deemed short-sighted and which limited the short-term profitability of his enterprises. In the long run, the harsh realities of forging an empire in remote Alaska would have had the same effect, even with substantial aid from Washington, D.C. Joslin never acknowledged those realities, however, and he spent his life pursuing a dream in the far North, while playing a small but crucial role in the settlement of the Tanana Valley and the long-term viability of Fairbanks.

Early days

Born in Belleview, Tennessee, on Sept. 27, 1866, Joslin received a law degree from Vanderbilt University and moved to Seattle in 1890 to start a lucrative law practice. (3) He was a big man, with a classical profile accented by thin wire-rimmed glasses to correct his far-sightedness. Active in local affairs, Joslin was a member of the charter revision committee that drafted the Seattle city charter.

Lure of the Yukon

In 1897, Joslin caught gold fever when news of the Klondike strike reached Seattle. He left his law practice in Seattle to traverse the Chilkoot Pass and try to make his fortune on the golden creeks near Dawson City, Yukon Territory. (4)

The Seattle lawyer had a hard time that first winter. He and a partner staked claims on a creek and built a cabin, with mixed results. The partners each took an end of a whipsaw to cut a log into boards for the floor of the cabin, but the boards came out twisted and uneven. They argued why the "damn saw" would not cut the boards straight. Martin Harrais, a prospector who had traveled with Joslin from Seattle, happened to walk by and witnessed the spectacle. He told the lawyer, "You can't wiggle and twist the saw as you did the evidence in the court room in your law practice. Keep the saw straight on line and you will saw good lumber." Joslin told Harrais to go to hell. (5)

His first winter's attempt at mining was unsuccessful, so Joslin moved into Dawson and hung out his shingle, opening a general brokerage on Queen Street that dealt with mining, real estate, loans and insurance.(6) Then, he devoted himself to bringing some of the niceties of civilization to the rough-hewn gold rush town by organizing the Dawson Electric Light and Power Co., which supplied light and power to Dawson. He also developed a coal mine on Coal Creek to fuel the power plant, and built a 16-mile narrow gauge railroad, the Coal Creek Coal Mine Railroad, to reach the deposits.(7)

Joslin rapidly gained respect in Dawson. In 1898, the territory opened new ground to miners on Dominion Creek just as hundreds of prospectors from Britain and Australia arrived in Dawson. A stampede ensued. When the prospectors arrived at the creek, earlier arrivals had staked all the newly released sites, sparking rumors that the Americans had jumped the gun to claim all the good ground. Anti-American sentiment flared and a group of level-headed Americans, including Joslin, Tom McGowan and Leroy Tozier circulated among the American miners, cooling their tempers and averting violence.(8)

Domestic life

joslinhouse

The Falcon Joslin house in the early 1900s with Falcon Joslin at right, his wife
Lora, two of their children and an unidentified man. Photo from Fairbanks Daily
News-Miner archives.

Joslin married Lora F. Price of DeWitt, Iowa, at 9:00 a.m. on May 9, 1900 , in the parlor of Lora's parents' home in DeWitt. The couple caught the Chicago Express at 1:30 p.m. the same day.(9) While Lora went to Seattle to get her affairs in order, her new husband headed for New York, where he had business to conduct. If they had known it, this separation was an omen for their marriage, much of which they spent thousands of miles apart. Whereas Lora loved cities and their amenities, Joslin lamented that he had spent too much time on the frontier and was unaccustomed to city life. He spent long hours alone in his hotel rooms finding solace in his work.(10)

His health was a constant source of concern for Joslin. He lived in terror of contracting tuberculosis. Every cold was a prelude to pneumonia and a bout of lumbago had him convinced he had a prostate gland abscess. (11) Although he loved sweets, he was prone to overindulgence and often complained that his "nerves" acted up during stressful business negotiations. He suffered from chronic gastritis. (12) He did not hold his liquor well, either. Several of his friends greeted him effusively during a 1907 trip to Dawson, plying the lawyer with whiskey and cigars. A pounding hangover greeted him the next morning. "I'll murder the next man that offers me a cigar or drink," he groused. "I did not drink too much, but any is too much for me."(13)

The couple eventually had three children, Falcon Jr., Margaret and William, but Lora disliked Dawson and Fairbanks. Except for a couple of seasons early in their marriage she lived Outside. She was not made of pioneer stuff and depended on servants to help her with the children and the household duties. Once, in a light moment after taking a ride in the Tanana Valley Railroad's gasoline-powered car past the university agriculture station's farm on a sunny August day, Joslin suggested that they stake out a homestead in the Tanana Valley. "What do you think of that? Will you do the cooking and the washing?" he asked facetiously, (14) knowing she would refuse. Lora's servant turnover was high and she constantly searched for workers who could meet her high standards.

Joslin's biggest complaint about his wife was that she was a poor letter writer. He always feared the worst if long intervals passed between communications. While staying at the Waldorf-Astoria hotel in New York during a fund-raising trip in 1906, Joslin wrote to his wife after he had gone weeks without a letter from her, fearing the silence had an ominous tone. "What is it honey? I though you would wire if you are sick or need me. I'd come if you say the word, on my hands and knees. I fear I have stayed away too long, you have grown mad at me." (15) Joslin anticipated business would delay him a few more weeks and begged Lora to understand the reasons. "I would not stay here but that I hope by doing so to make life for you and the little ones easy." (16) Even after a dozen years of marriage, Joslin dreamed that Lora had left him for another man. (17)

Joslin was prone to depression, tempered by bouts of wild enthusiasm if business prospects looked good. He considered suicide several times, but thoughts of his family kept him from pulling the trigger.(18) The long separations from his wife and children were hard for this doting parent. As early as 1903, he considered finding a different livelihood. The prospect of another season apart from his young family dulled his interest in the territory. He decided to sell out, or try to persuade his wife to move to the Yukon Territory for a few years until he could afford to quit the country for good. (19) Lora finally decided to join her husband in Dawson. She brought the baby and the couple rented a house in town, hiring a colored woman to help with the housework. (20) The family prospered, but Falcon Joslin wanted more. Then Felix Pedro struck gold in the Tanana Valley.

In January 1903, Jujiro Wada brought news to Dawson City of a big gold strike in the Tanana Valley. That fall, Martin Harrais, an immigrant from Riga, Lithuania, who had traveled to the Yukon from Seattle with Joslin and made a fortune on Sulphur Creek near Dawson City, decided to investigate the Tanana Valley strikes instead of going Outside for the winter. Before he left, he stopped by Joslin's office to talk about the new area's potential. (21)

The pair discussed building a railroad from a point on the Tanana River to connect the mines with river transportation, provided the new strikes justified the investment. (22) The two men "dreamed dreams of being empire builders" and saw visions of populous mining and smelting centers and happy farm homes flourishing in the Tanana Valley. (23) Harrais set out for Fairbanks with his partner, Frank Smith, and Joslin's older brother John. The men spent several weeks studying the Tanana strikes and decided they were worthy of investment. They sketched a rough map of the railroad route, putting the terminal at Chena, the head of navigation for large boats on the Tanana, and traced the line 21 miles to Gilmore. Then they got a piece of brown wrapping paper from George Belt's store, drew their proposed route and rolled it up. Frank Smith carried it back to Joslin in Dawson, a blueprint for an empire.(24)

Tanana Valley Railroad

oldno1

Old Engine No. 1, shown under steam in 2010 at Pioneer Park,
was brought to the Yukon to move coal from deposits near
Dawson City to the Yukon River. It was moved to Fairbanks in
1904 as the first engine on the Tanana Mines Railway. Julie
Stricker photo

The Dawson City entrepreneur traveled to the States in 1904 to try to obtain some financing for his railroad proposal. In the meantime, Harrais started a sawmill in Chena to supply the miners from the Yukon who were flooding into the Tanana Valley. (25) The White Pass and Yukon Railway Company agreed to back the venture, figuring the Tanana Valley railroad would hook into its boats on the Yukon. (26) Joslin immediately shipped a load of equipment and supplies so construction could begin that winter, but freezeup caught the boat 60 miles from Chena, delaying the company's plans.

Eight men formed the core of the railroad construction force: Joslin, president; Charles Moriarty, superintendent of construction; Robert Taylor, auditor and accountant; Adam Tyson, general storekeeper; John Bernard, transitman; L.L. James, treasurer and paymaster; and two timekeepers. Harrais agreed to finance the project until Joslin raised other funds and to provide the timber for ties and bridge trestles.(27)

Workers began clearing the right of way and grading the roadbed in 1905. The route crossed miles of permafrost, covered with up to three feet of moss. Initially, crews stripped the moss from the railroad bed, laying the rails on the exposed ground. The frozen muck and ice soon began to thaw and the roadbed tipped and settled, requiring frequent repairs. (28) Crews learned to lay the rails on top of the moss and dig ditches on either side of the right-of-way to drain the melting permafrost. This method helped, but did not stop the buckling. Even sidehill areas had ice lenses that melted and softened the ground, in one instance collapsing under the weight of a passing train and derailing it. (29)

Despite these obstacles, construction crews advanced and Joslin planned a "golden spike" ceremony on July 4, 1905. The day before the ceremony, the Chena River flooded, washing away the bridge across the river as well as the site for the celebration. After the damage was repaired, the ceremony was rescheduled for July 17. On the appointed day, Isabelle Barnette, wife of Fairbanks founder E.T. Barnette, drove a 40-ounce spike made of gold dust mined in the Tanana Valley to complete the Tanana Mines Railway. (30) Construction costs the first year amounted to $350,000, but by the end of September, the crew had completed the line as far as Gilmore. Daily trains ran profitably that winter. (31) Joslin went Outside to refinance the railroad. By 1907, the railroad extended another 20 miles to Chatanika. A spur line provided access to the small mining communities of Vault and Olnes. Maintenance costs were high, however, and Joslin was always short of money, although he expected the railroad to "make a killing" in 1907. (32) He wanted to sell the railroad to the Guggenheims, who planned to extend their Copper River & Northwestern Railway north to the Tanana Valley.

In the summer of 1907, Joslin sent a reconnaissance party to survey a route for a railroad from the Tanana Valley to tidewater at Haines. (33) The railroad would connect some of the richest copper, gold and coal deposits in the district. He also received requests to extend the Tanana Valley Railroad north to the Yukon River and up to the oil deposits on the North Slope. His empire was taking shape.

Events conspired against his success, however. Joslin's plans were on a collision course with the burgeoning conservation movement in the States. On November 12, 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt issued an executive order withdrawing from public use all coal, oil and forest reserves in Alaska to be reclassified and opened later. In Joslin's opinion, the president had cut off Alaska's fuel supply, "killing the territory in the infancy of its development." (34) Instead of giving railroad developers 12,000 acres for every mile of railroad they built, as the federal government did in the American West, it instead imposed a $100 fee for every mile of Alaska railroad in operation. To make matters worse, the government helped build a wagon trail paralleling the Tanana Valley Railroad's right-of-way, cutting into Joslin's already tenuous profit margin.

joslinhouseotp

A 2011 Fairbanks Daily News-Miner story about the
Falcon Joslin house

Things weren't going well at home, either. Lora hated Fairbanks and in 1907, Joslin moved his family to Seattle. His business interests in Fairbanks required him to travel to Alaska for several months every year, and he spent a lot of time in New York and Washington, D.C., lobbying for home rule for Alaska and an easing of coal restrictions. During these trips, Joslin discovered that he had talents as a public speaker. He spoke before the U.S. House Committee of Territories in favor of home rule in 1910, and again in 1912 to plead for a coal leasing system in Alaska.

Another business deal consumed a great deal of his time in 1909. Joslin served as vice president of the Washington-Alaska Bank, the smallest of three banks in Fairbanks. In August 1909, E.T. Barnette approached W.H. Parsons, a director of the Washington-Alaska Bank, with a proposition to combine all three banks and sell them to one big bank Outside. On September 15, 1909, the bank's shareholders sold its entire capital stock, 1,500 shares, to the Fairbanks Banking Company, owned by Barnette for $166.66 a share. (35) Joslin expected the news to hit the town hard. "There is a terrible spirit of depression here. It is the sense that the camp is over and will decline fast." (36) Barnette's bank later failed.

In 1908, the Tanana Valley Railroad carried 54,013 passengers and 14,666 tons of freight. Joslin estimated operating expenses at 62 percent of gross income. (37) By 1910, the railroad was in worse straits. Joslin had secured funding from a group of London investors, but maintenance costs, high fuel prices and competition from the government eroded profits. The coal edict had effectively killed Joslin's expansion plans for the railroad, so when a group of businessmen from the Alaska Syndicate arrived in Fairbanks to discuss extending their railroad to the Tanana Valley, it surprised and excited him. (38) The proposal heartened Joslin, "perhaps this little railroad that has cost us so dearly may return us something for all our trouble in it." (39)

Railroad magnate J.P. Morgan backed the syndicate. An exhibit of Alaska-grown vegetables Joslin had mounted in Washington, D.C., in 1907 had impressed Morgan. he pledged to extend his Copper Valley & Northwest Railway into the Interior to benefit Alaska pioneers, and to serve as a monument to him. (40) Anti-monopoly sentiment derailed the proposition and the syndicate stopped the railroad at Chitina. Joslin blamed Alaska delegate to Congress, Judge James Wickersham, for the proposal's failure. (41)

By 1916, the railroad was insolvent and had not paid interest on bonds London underwriters backed for several years, much less dividends. (42) Lack of wood to power the engines was one problem. Since the government had closed the coal lands, the railroad relied on wood for power, as did the placer miners. The Fairbanks District suffered a "wood famine," as all the wood within the economic limit of sled hauling had been cut. A cord of wood cost $12 to $16. (43) Placer miners used it to thaw the frozen ground and burned up to ten cords a day. Congress passed a coal-leasing bill in 1914, but it did little to ease the problem because there was no road between Fairbanks and the coal mines in Nenana. The government's announcement of its plans to build a railroad from Seward to the Interior had also curtailed mining near Fairbanks. Many mines closed down until a road could be opened to the Nenana coal deposits and provide cheaper fuel.(44)

In the meantime, Joslin tried to convince the government to buy the Tanana Valley Railroad instead of building a new one alongside it. The railroad owed more than $600,000 to its London investors and a severe winter and steep maintenance costs in 1915 had resulted in a net loss in 1916.(45) The government had Joslin over a barrel. It realized the railroad was unprofitable as a standalone enterprise and that Joslin had no alternative but to sell it to the Alaska Railroad Commission. (46) In the spring of 1917, with some prodding from Wickersham, the commission agreed to buy the Tanana Valley Railroad for $300,000 (The following note was added on April 12, 2013). According to the Friends of the Tanana Valley Railroad website, a> the Tanana Valley Railroad was sold at a bankruptcy sale for $200,000. The buyer resold the TVRR to the Alaska Engineering Commission (AEC) for $300,000 on December 31, 1917. The TVRR became the Chatanika Branch of the Alaska Engineering Commission Railroad, which became the Alaska Railroad in 1923.

The Alaska Club

Outside of Alaska, Joslin was a tireless advocate for the territory and its potential. In 1911, Joslin and other development-minded Alaska advocates formed the Alaska Club in Seattle, Washington, to lobby the federal government to help the remote territory. Building a transportation system in Alaska was an urgent need, and the group lobbied for a bill in Congress that would enable the federal government to build a trunk line railroad from Seward to the Yukon River, about 500 miles. If the government laid 500 miles of track, Joslin was confident he could add another 500 to 1,000 miles to the railroad. Government assistance was necessary to his plans. "We need many things in Alaska," he said. "We need a local government there; we need the mining laws amended; but we need, most of all, 2,000 miles, at least, of railroads. ... I believe it is impossible to build the first trunk lines in Alaska by private enterprise and make them commercially successful." (47) Joslin judged a railroad to Interior Alaska no less important to the country than the Panama Canal.

In Seattle, Joslin spent a great deal of time lobbying Congress to obtain legislation beneficial to Alaska. He organized and was the first president of the Arctic Club, and was a member of the Seattle Gold and Country Club, Broadmoor, Alaska-Yukon Pioneers, Arctic Brotherhood, Mining Club of Seattle and the Masonic Lodge. (48) The Alaska Club was open to former residents of the territory and devoted to pressuring Congress to grant home rule status and to fight the withdrawal of coal-bearing lands in the territory. The club claimed a membership of more than 1,200 in 1911. Its motto was "Develop Alaska ... because what benefits Alaska will benefit Seattle." (49)

On February 28, 1911, Joslin address the Seattle Chamber of Commerce, urging the group to work with the Fairbanks Chamber of Commerce to help promote the Tanana Valley. The influx of settlers to the Tanana Valley he had expected the richness of the area to attract had not materialized. He blamed the lack of a railroad from Interior Alaska to the Lower 48, and asked the Seattle group to help advertise the Tanana Valley's potential. "We do not want a stampede," Joslin said, "but we do need a steady immigration of substantial workmen and settlers as rapidly as they can be absorbed." (50) He estimated the area could take up to 5,000 new settlers a year.

Joslin said the Alaska gold output had reached $19 million, but it should have been $30 million if enough manpower had been available to work the claims. "In time, the vast Tanana territory should produce from $50,000,000 to $100,000,000 per year in gold," Joslin told the Seattle group. "In addition to this resource, it is a region agriculturally as vast as the Ohio Valley and would support, when developed," 500,000 people, even if there were no gold." (51)

Prospects farther west

In 1909, prospectors discovered placer gold in Otter Creek in the Iditarod District. Joslin was anxious to leave Fairbanks. "I have got the fever bad and wish I had gone down there this summer instead of staying around here with this dying proposition." (52) Joslin was already focused on his next big venture, a wireless telegraph in the new mining camp at Iditarod. The Alaska Wireless Telegraph Co. was operational in July 1911, and Joslin's newest enterprise pleased him. The telegraph cleared about $70 per day profits by August. (53) By the following year, Joslin was crowing about his good fortune. "Honey, it's good not to be broke and have to depend on a salary and its continuance for the necessities of life." (54) He later sold the company to the government.

New enterprises

In 1914, Congress approved a coal lands leasing amendment. Joslin secured interests in the Bering River coal deposits and the nearby Katalla oil fields on the Gulf of Alaska between Cordova and Cape Yakatag. The summer of 1916 was a busy one for Joslin. He wrote contracts for the Ryan Lode gold properties and secured $255,000 on three prospects before he left town. By November, he was in Cordova working on the Katalla deal, and hoping for Wickersham's defeat as Alaska's delegate to Congress. He had delayed the Katalla prospects while settling the Ryan Lode contracts, but as the oil company earned $2,000 per month and was "capable of doing much better," he felt the trouble was justified. (55) "But I've got a lot of irons in the fire and I lay awake at night trying to keep them all hot." (56) The possibilities excited him and he called the coal mine "one of the biggest things in the history of Alaska and the whole Pacific coast." (57) He envisioned a railroad from the Bering River coal fields to tidewater that would supply coal to Seattle and lure industry to Alaska. (58)

Joslin despised Wickersham (59) despite the delegate's assistance in getting approval for the sale of the Tanana Valley Railroad to the government. Wickersham was a Republican and self-professed trust-bust who sided against the Guggenheims' Alaska Syndicate. Joslin, on the other hand, admired the Guggenheims' business acumen and stood to benefit from his association with them. He flirted with the idea of running for the Alaska delegate seat, first in 1910, later in 1919, only if he was guaranteed his candidacy would help unseat Wickersham. (60) About 2010, I spoke on the phone with one of Joslin's granddaughters who told me that the name of Wickersham was anathema in the household. After Joslin died in 1927, his wife Lora would never talk about Alaska.

He also kept an eye on the Katalla prospects, which did not prosper in the summer of 1920. "We have been doing a lot of bonehead work locating wells. ... It has been fearfully unlucky that we should have taken four years to learn and drill so many deep and dry holes all around the good ground." (61) Getting to the oil fields, an eight-hour boat trip from Cordova, was another trial for the attorney, who admitted he could get seasick in a canoe on a calm day. (62) The eight-hour trip from Cordova to Katalla over rough Gulf of Alaska waters ravaged him. He tried to spur the workers that summer by grabbing a shovel himself to help clear the right-of-way. He became resigned to delays and setbacks, however, and remarked, "we live, and we hope and are out of jail, which is perhaps the average happiness of a human being." (63)

Final dreams

Joslin paid his last visit to Alaska in the summer of 1927, during which he retraced the path he had taken over the Chilkoot Pass and down the Yukon River in 1897. While in Fairbanks, he sold his interests in the Ryan Gold Lode Properties.(64) He also took his first airplane ride and marveled at the ease of flying 45 minutes from Fairbanks to his property in Livengood, compared with the arduous four days it had taken him to walk the same distance in 1912. (65)

To the end of his life, Joslin held on to his dreams of wealth and empire, but he had become philosophical about his chances of success. During his last trip to Fairbanks, six months before his death, he discussed selling his options in the Livengood area. "It is truly a beautiful mining property, and I have vague dim hope that this time I may make a fortune out of it, but many similar hopes have gone awry and I don't know any reason why this one should not go the same way." (66)

Joslin died of kidney failure at 6:30 a.m. on Jan. 12, 1928, at his Seattle home at 727 17th Avenue North.

Conclusion

Ultimately, Joslin never achieved his life's ambition of building an empire in the Tanana Valley. He never accomplished his other goal of making a living while being able to live with his family. His life was not a failure, however. Without his railroad in the Tanana Valley, Fairbanks may have never become more than just another gold rush camp despite the backing of Judge James Wickersham. The railroad paved the way for miners to get freight and move their minerals to market. It offered a recreational outlet for sourdoughs and Fairbanks residents alike. And it proved to be an incentive for the government to extend its railroad from Seward to Fairbanks instead of stopping at the Nenana coal fields.

Joslin faced formidable opposition to his grand plans. He was unable to devote all of his energy to his business enterprises because he longed to be in Washington with his family. Although there was no way for him to know it, his railroad plans were on a collision course with the environmental backlash to the monopoly-era railroads in the States. J.P. Morgan, the Guggenheims and Andrew Carnegie had all carved out their empires in the contiguous 48 states, and America had lost faith with monopolies. Alaska, with its icebox pristine reputation was their guarantee that Americans would have wilderness and resources for future generations. Unfortunately, the resources the federal government put in trust for all future Americans were the very resources Joslin needed to keep his enterprises viable. The results strangled development and Joslin's dreams of empire.

Footnotes

(1) - Falcon Joslin, "Railroad Building in Alaska," in Alaska Yukon Magazine, January 1909, p. 249

(2) - Falcon Joslin, "The Conservation Policy in Alaska," in Alaska Yukon Magazine, May 1910, p. 341

(3) - Seattle Daily Times January 12, 1928

(4) - Ibid

(5) - Martin Harrais Papers, manuscript for "Gold Lunatics," Folder 4, University of Alaska Archives, Fairbanks, Alaska, throughout

(6) - Dawson News, "Golden Cleanup Edition," 1902, p. 77

(7) - Unidentified newspaper clipping, Falcon Joslin Papers, Box 1-Folder 3

(8) - Harrais papers, Folder 6

(9) - Ibid

(10) - Falcon Joslin to Lora, May 10, 1900, Falcon Joslin Papers, Box 1-Folder 10, University of Alaska Archives, Fairbanks, Alaska, throughout.